Engineers Create ‘Air Conditioning’ for Salmon With Chilled Patches of River Water

Image by boyarkinamarina on Freepik

All living beings have an ideal condition that they thrive in. Be it hot, cold, or somewhere in the middle, this is important for them to survive, even if they can and do live in changing conditions. The same is true for the wild Atlantic salmon. Spending most of their lives in the cold water found in the ocean, once of age, these fish tend to venture towards freshwater rivers. Here, they encounter a challenge in the form of warmer waters.

Atlantic Salmon Lifecycle & Temperature Challenges

Mostly living in cool waters, Atlantic salmon are born in rivers. They stay in the ocean waters till the time they mature sexually. At this point, they retreat to their birthplace for spawning.

With the ideal temperature of water for them being between 43-72°F, the Atlantic salmon can be seen struggling in warmer waters. While even in these conditions they can survive for short periods, too much heat can lead to them becoming stressed and eventually dying.

Finding a Solution

Researchers in Nova Scotia, Canada, took this issue up and tried giving the fish a level of relief. Led by Kathryn Smith, a Dalhousie University civil engineer, these researchers did this through artificially built chilly plumes or additional cold areas in the Wrights River.

Image by on Freepik

These ‘thermal refuges’ that help them cool off are essentially chilly patches of river water on the way upstream. Generally occurring naturally, these thermal refuges take place when groundwater springs let cool water enter the stream.

Research Approaches

This research breaks new ground as earlier research was centered mainly around counting and saving natural thermal refuges and not building new ones. The research team brought about two approaches to making thermal refuges.

Flickr // UNDPPH

The first one, being an active approach, involved pumping 48°F water into the river from a municipal well, reaching a total temperature of 86°F. Then thermal probes, underwater cameras, and drone thermal mapping were used to monitor changes. The second approach, the passive one, included the rerouting of river water through underground trenches.


The findings of the first approach revealed that the well water infusion brought the surrounding temperature down to as much as 36°F from the initial temperature.

The second approach resulted in the lowering of the temperature when the water got back to the river as some of the heat had been shed into the soil and it had had some relief from sun exposure.

Workouts to Boost Your Testosterone Level in Your 40s

Keeping yourself up and running in your 20s is not a big deal. You are young, energetic, and have the dedication to lose those extra inches with a workout session every day. You can very easily pick up heavy dumbbells and run without getting breathless. But, when you start hitting your 40s and kids actually start calling you uncle (oops!), you know it’s time to get back in the game. In fact, your age also starts decreasing your testosterone. Here are a few workouts that work on your overall body and can help you with these factors.

Kneeling Plank Rotations

Balancing your body, kneel on your left knee. Hold a plate on your right hip while you do that. Rotate the plate in a circular motion, working from overhead to your left knee. You basically need to create an arc. Bring the plate back to your body in a straight line. Switch your knee and redo the process. Try to do around four sets of 15 repetitions on each knee.

Palloff Press

Stand straight parallel to a gyming cable machine. Now pull the handle of the equipment and hold it at the level of your chest. Keep pressing the cable forward and ensure that your shoulders and hips form a square. Try and make sure that you fight against the force to move. Do not move your feet during the exercise. Approximately four sets of 15 reps would do it!

3D Planks

This workout first requires you to be in a plank position. Now, move one of your knees towards the opposite elbow. For instance, if you are driving your right knee, then it should go towards your left elbow. Then, go back to the original plank position without resting your foot on the ground. Now, take the same knee towards the other elbow. Instead of taking it back, pause. Turn your knee at the right angle to your body and again take it back to your left elbow. Repeat this 5-10 times and then switch sides. Try to get 3-5 sets done.

Summing it Up

Other than these full-body exercises, there are several other exercises for your specific body zones. Cable flyers, ball dumbbell press, and a lot more whoo-hahh sessions will help you maintain your hard-earned body and balance your testosterone levels. Remember not to overstress your body and make a good workout plan so that you do not end up doing anything. Grab your bag and hit the gym already.